By Michael Allaby
This prime dictionary - now in its fourth version - deals wide-ranging and authoritative assurance of the earth sciences and comparable issues in over 7,500 transparent and available entries. insurance contains geology, planetary technological know-how, oceanography, palaeontology, mineralogy, and volcanology, in addition to climatology, geochemistry, and petrology.
This re-creation has been absolutely up to date with a hundred and fifty new entries further, with extended insurance of geology and planetary geology phrases. Over one hundred thirty line drawings accompany the definitions.
The Dictionary additionally presents instructed internet hyperlinks that are indexed and often up to date on a devoted better half web site. Appendices comprise a revised geological time scale, an up to date bibliography, stratigraphic devices, lunar and Martian time scales, wind-strength scales, and SI devices. This dictionary is vital for college students of geography, geology, and earth sciences, and for these in in similar disciplines.
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Extra resources for A Dictionary of Geology and Earth Sciences
Arborescent See dendritic. arc See island arc. archae- (arche-) Preﬁx, from the Greek arkhaios (‘ancient’), itself derived from arkhe (‘beginning’). It adds the meaning ‘ancient’, with the implication ‘ﬁrst’, to words to which it is attached. Archaea The *domain comprising what were formerly known as the archaebacteria. What used to be the kingdom Archaebacteria has been split into two kingdoms: *Crenarchaeota and *Euryarchaeota. The domain Archaea contains the *phenotypes: *methanogens, *sulphate-reducing organisms, and *extremophiles.
Apodeme See exoskeleton. apogee The point in the orbit of the Moon (or any artiﬁcial satellite) that is most distant from the Earth. Compare perigee. Apollo 1. A *solar system asteroid (No. 81 years. Its orbit crosses that of earth. 2. The name of the *NASA manned lunar programme that ran from 1963 to 1972. A A NASA programme of missions from 1963 to 1972 to land humans on the Moon and return them to Earth. apomorph Evolutionarily advanced (‘derived’) character state. The long neck of the giraffe is apomorphic; the short neck of its ancestor is *plesiomorphic.
Aquamarine See beryl. Aquitanian 1. 03 Ma ago) in the *Miocene Epoch, preceded by the *Chattian (*Oligocene), followed by the *Burdigalian (Int. Commission on Stratigraphy, 2004). 2. The name of the corresponding European *stage, which is roughly contemporaneous with the upper *Zemorrian and lower *Saucesian (N. America), parts of the *Otaian (New Zealand), and the upper *Janjukian and lower *Longfordian (Australia). The *stratotype is in the Aquitanian Basin, France. The Aquitanian is itself characterized by the appearance of the planktonic *foraminiferid Globigerinoides primordia.
A Dictionary of Geology and Earth Sciences by Michael Allaby