By Ludwig W. Adamec
The second one variation of the old Dictionary of Islam offers a concise review of Islamic historical past, faith, philosophy, and Islamic political hobbies.
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The second one variation of the old Dictionary of Islam provides a concise review of Islamic historical past, faith, philosophy, and Islamic political routine.
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Extra resources for Historical Dictionary of Islam (Historical Dictionaries of Religions, Philosophies and Movements)
1722 Afghans defeat Safavid empire at Gulnabad. 1745 Emergence of the Wahhabi (Unitarian) movement. 1798 Napoleon invades Egypt (1798–1801). 1802 Wahhabis capture Mecca and Medina (1802–1804). 1805 Muhammad ‘Ali founds Egyptian dynasty (1805–1952). 1812 Ibrahim, son of Muhammad ‘Ali, takes Mecca and Medina. 1818 Ibrahim defeats Wahhabis. 1826 Massacre of the Janissaries under Mahmud II. 1828 Parts of Greece gain independence. 1830 French take Algeria. 1850 Execution of the Bab. 1869 Suez Canal opens.
Campaigns during the caliphate of ‘Umar ibn al-Khattab (634–644) led the Islamic forces into North Africa and Mesopotamia. ‘Umar adopted the title Amir al-Mu’minin, Commander of the Believers. The Byzantines were defeated in the Battle of al-Yarmuk (636), and the Persian Sassanids were defeated at the Battle of Nihavand (641). ‘Umar was worried about overextending his forces, and he cautioned his reckless commander, ‘Amr ibn al-As: “If my letter ordering thee to turn back from Egypt overtakes thee before entering any part of it then turn back; but if thou enter the land before the receipt of my letter, then proceed and solicit Allah’s aid”(Hitti, 1964, 160).
He concluded with the Meccans the Treaty of Hudaybiyah, which was supposed to maintain peace for the subsequent ten years. Accusing the Meccans of violating the treaty, the Muslim forces took Mecca in 630, at the loss of two Muslim lives. In the Year of Deputations, 630–631, delegations of tribes from all over the Arabian Peninsula came to Medina to offer their allegiance. They agreed to be instructed in the new faith and to pay a poor tax (zakat) for the institutional use of the Muslim community.
Historical Dictionary of Islam (Historical Dictionaries of Religions, Philosophies and Movements) by Ludwig W. Adamec